We covered a lot of these over the course of all the chapters. But here is a quick review.
Reset Root Password
From the Installation Guide:
What can you do if you forget your root password? To reset it to a different password, boot into rescue mode or single-user mode, and use the passwd command to reset the root password.
Booting into Rescue Mode
From the same guide:
Rescue mode provides the ability to boot a small Red Hat Enterprise Linux environment entirely from CD-ROM, or some other boot method, instead of the system’s hard drive.
As the name implies, rescue mode is provided to rescue you from something. During normal operation, your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system uses files located on your system’s hard drive to do everything — run programs, store your files, and more.
However, there may be times when you are unable to get Red Hat Enterprise Linux running completely enough to access files on your system’s hard drive. Using rescue mode, you can access the files stored on your system’s hard drive, even if you cannot actually run Red Hat Enterprise Linux from that hard drive.
To boot into rescue mode, you must be able to boot the system using one of the following methods:
- By booting the system from a boot CD-ROM or DVD.
- By booting the system from other installation boot media, such as USB flash devices.
- By booting the system from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD.
Once you have booted using one of the described methods, add the keyword rescue as a kernel parameter. For example, for an x86 system, type the following command at the installation boot prompt:
If your system requires a third-party driver provided on a driver disc to boot, load the driver with the additional option dd:
linux rescue dd
If a driver that is part of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.5 distribution prevents the system from booting, blacklist that driver with the rdblacklist option. For example, to boot into rescue mode without the foobar driver, run:
linux rescue rdblacklist=foobar
You are prompted to answer a few basic questions, including which language to use. It also prompts you to select where a valid rescue image is located. Select from Local CD-ROM, Hard Drive, NFS image, FTP, or HTTP. The location selected must contain a valid installation tree, and the installation tree must be for the same version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux as the Red Hat Enterprise Linux disk from which you booted. If you used a boot CD-ROM or other media to start rescue mode, the installation tree must be from the same tree from which the media was created.
If you select a rescue image that does not require a network connection, you are asked whether or not you want to establish a network connection. A network connection is useful if you need to backup files to a different computer or install some RPM packages from a shared network location, for example.
The following message is displayed:
- The rescue environment will now attempt to find your Linux installation and mount it under the directory /mnt/sysimage. You can then make any changes required to your system. If you want to proceed with this step choose ‘Continue’. You can also choose to mount your file systems read-only instead of read-write by choosing ‘Read-only’. If for some reason this process fails you can choose ‘Skip’ and this step will be skipped and you will go directly to a command shell.
If you select Continue, it attempts to mount your file system under the directory /mnt/sysimage/. If it fails to mount a partition, it notifies you. If you select Read-Only, it attempts to mount your file system under the directory /mnt/sysimage/, but in read-only mode. If you select Skip, your file system is not mounted. Choose Skip if you think your file system is corrupted.
Once you have your system in rescue mode, a prompt appears on VC (virtual console) 1 and VC 2 (use the Ctrl-Alt-F1 key combination to access VC 1 and Ctrl-Alt-F2 to access VC 2):
If you selected Continue to mount your partitions automatically and they were mounted successfully, you are in single-user mode.
Even if your file system is mounted, the default root partition while in rescue mode is a temporary root partition, not the root partition of the file system used during normal user mode (runlevel 3 or 5). If you selected to mount your file system and it mounted successfully, you can change the root partition of the rescue mode environment to the root partition of your file system by executing the following command:
This is useful if you need to run commands such as rpm that require your root partition to be mounted as /. To exit the chroot environment, type exit to return to the prompt.
If you selected Skip, you can still try to mount a partition or LVM2 logical volume manually inside rescue mode by creating a directory such as /foo, and typing the following command:
mount -t ext4 /dev/mapper/VolGroup00-LogVol02 /foo
In the above command, /foo is a directory that you have created and /dev/mapper/VolGroup00-LogVol02 is the LVM2 logical volume you want to mount. If the partition is of type ext2 or ext3 replace ext4 with ext2 or ext3 respectively.
If you do not know the names of all physical partitions, use the following command to list them:
If you do not know the names of all LVM2 physical volumes, volume groups, or logical volumes, use the pvdisplay, vgdisplay or lvdisplay commands, respectively.
Reset Root Password Example with Single User Mode
We covered booting into Single User mode in Chapter 2. So let’s boot into Single User mode. First reboot the machine and when it starts booting up you should see the Grub Menu:
Then leave the first one selected and type e to edit that entry and you should see the following:
Then scroll down to the kernel line and type e again to edit:
then append the word single to the kernel parameter:
then hit enter and then type b to boot the current configuration. After it’s booted into Single User mode, you will see the following:
type the command passwd and set the password for the root user:
After that, just type exit to reboot the system.
Reset Root Password Example with Rescue Mode
Insert the install media into the server and boot from the CD/DVD. You should see the following if you booted from the CD successfully:
Scroll down and select “Rescue Installed System”, after it’s done loading it will ask you to select your language:
After selecting English, I saw the keyboard type selection screen:
After selecting us, I saw the Rescue Method screen:
After selecting “Local CD/DVD”, it asked me if I wanted to start networking:
I was just resetting the password, so I didn’t need networking. After selecting No, I saw the the screen which talked about attempting to mount the Linux installation:
I selected “Continue” and after successfully mounting the Linux Installation, I saw the following:
Upon clicking OK I got another confirmation that it has been mounted:
Upon clicking OK again, I saw the “First Aid Kit quickstart menu”:
I left shell selected and click OK, at which point it dropped into a shell:
I made sure the correct LVM volumes was mounted, I then chrooted into the system, and lastly I reset the password:
I exited out of the chroot, then out of the **shell*, and rebooted the system.
Re-installing MBR with GRUB Example
There are a couple of ways of doing this (they were both covered in Chapter 2). You can boot into rescue mode as described above and run the grub console (from there you can re-install MBR) or you can just run the grub-install command. Here is how the long way looks like:
You can run quit to exit the grub console, and then reboot the system.
Or here is the quick way (still from rescue mode):
Running a FileSystem Check Example
If for some reason you think the File System is corrupt then you can run a file system check on it. I try to do it from external media, so boot into rescue mode and don’t auto detect the file system (since we don’t want to mount it). When dropped to the shell activate the LVM volumes and then do the file system check with fsck:
To activate the LVM volumes, run the following:
- lvm vgscan -v
- lvm vgvhange -ay
- lvm lvs –all
Restoring a valid FileSystem SuperBlock Example
If you have a corrupt superblock:
/dev/sda2: Input/output error mount: /dev/sda2: can't read superblock
Then you can try to restore one from backups, first check the file system to see where the superblocks are located:
[root@rhel1 ~]# dumpe2fs /dev/sda1 | grep superblock dumpe2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010) Primary superblock at 1, Group descriptors at 2-3 Backup superblock at 8193, Group descriptors at 8194-8195 Backup superblock at 24577, Group descriptors at 24578-24579 Backup superblock at 40961, Group descriptors at 40962-40963 Backup superblock at 57345, Group descriptors at 57346-57347 Backup superblock at 73729, Group descriptors at 73730-73731 Backup superblock at 204801, Group descriptors at 204802-204803 Backup superblock at 221185, Group descriptors at 221186-221187 Backup superblock at 401409, Group descriptors at 401410-401411
To restore a file system with a backup superblock, run the following:
[root@rhel1 ~]# umount /dev/sda1 [root@rhel1 ~]# fsck -b 8193 /dev/sda1 fsck from util-linux-ng 2.17.2 e2fsck 1.41.12 (17-May-2010) One or more block group descriptor checksums are invalid. Fix<y>?
Can’t Reach a Specific Service on a Remote Machine
Let’s say you couldn’t SSH into a server. Here are the steps I would take to make sure everything is in order:
Make sure the Service is running on the remote machine
[root@rhel1 ~]# service sshd status openssh-daemon (pid 2188) is running... [root@rhel1 ~]# ps -eaf | grep ssh | grep -v grep root 2188 1 0 13:52 ? 00:00:00 /usr/sbin/sshd root 2425 2188 0 16:08 ? 00:00:00 sshd: root@pts/0
Make sure the service is running on it’s correct port. With SSH we use port 22:
[root@rhel1 ~]# netstat -antp | grep ssh tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:22 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN 2188/sshd [root@rhel1 ~]# lsof -i tcp:22 COMMAND PID USER FD TYPE DEVICE SIZE/OFF NODE NAME sshd 2188 root 3u IPv4 13965 0t0 TCP *:ssh (LISTEN)
Confirm TCP Wrappers are not blocking any IPs
[root@rhel1 ~]# grep -vE '^#|^$' /etc/hosts.deny [root@rhel1 ~]# grep -vE '^#|^$' /etc/hosts.allow vsftpd : 192.168.2.3 \ : spawn /bin/echo `/bin/date` from %h>>/var/log/ftpd.log \ : allow
It looks like only the FTP service is getting blocked and not the sshd service.
Make sure iptables are allow port 22 access:
[root@rhel1 ~]# iptables -L -n -v | grep 22 2 120 ACCEPT tcp -- * * 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0 state NEW tcp dpt:22
Check in the logs to see if other users are logging in:
[root@rhel1 ~]# grep sshd /var/log/secure | grep -i 'accepted password' | tail -2 May 3 16:14:13 rhel1 sshd: Accepted password for root from 192.168.1.107 port 40926 ssh2 May 3 16:15:49 rhel1 sshd: Accepted password for user1 from 192.168.2.3 port 38294 ssh2
Ensure sshd doesn’t have AllowGroups/AllowUsers or DenyGroups/DenyUsers options set:
[root@rhel1 ~]# grep -iE 'users|groups' /etc/ssh/sshd_config [root@rhel1 ~]#
Check to make sure SELinux is not interfering with the connection:
[root@rhel1 ~]# grep sshd /var/log/audit/audit.log | grep failed | tail -1 type=USER_LOGIN msg=audit(1399155767.241:164): user pid=2628 uid=0 auid=4294967295 ses=4294967295 subj=system_u:system_r:sshd_t:s0-s0:c0.c1023 msg='op=login acct="user1" exe="/usr/sbin/sshd" hostname=? addr=192.168.2.3 terminal=ssh res=failed'
From the client machine, make sure DNS resolves to the correct IP:
[root@rhel2 ~]# host rhel1 rhel1.local.com has address 192.168.2.2 [root@rhel2 ~]# nslookup rhel1 Server: 192.168.2.2 Address: 192.168.2.2#53 Name: rhel1.local.com Address: 192.168.2.2
Make sure you can ping the server from the client:
[root@rhel2 ~]# ping -c 3 rhel1 PING rhel1.local.com (192.168.2.2) 56(84) bytes of data. 64 bytes from rhel1.local.com (192.168.2.2): icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.087 ms 64 bytes from rhel1.local.com (192.168.2.2): icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.298 ms 64 bytes from rhel1.local.com (192.168.2.2): icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.228 ms --- rhel1.local.com ping statistics --- 3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2000ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.087/0.204/0.298/0.088 ms
Make sure you can reach the destination port:
[root@rhel2 ~]# telnet rhel1 22 Trying 192.168.2.2... Connected to rhel1.local.com (192.168.2.2). Escape character is '^]'. SSH-2.0-OpenSSH_5.3 ^] telnet> quit Connection closed.
Make sure there are no client side settings that could be messing up the connection:
[root@rhel2 ~]# grep -vE '^#|^$' /etc/ssh/ssh_config Host * GSSAPIAuthentication yes ForwardX11Trusted yes SendEnv LANG LC_CTYPE LC_NUMERIC LC_TIME LC_COLLATE LC_MONETARY LC_MESSAGES SendEnv LC_PAPER LC_NAME LC_ADDRESS LC_TELEPHONE LC_MEASUREMENT SendEnv LC_IDENTIFICATION LC_ALL
If available check the user’s home directory for ssh settings as well:
[root@rhel2 ~]# ls ~user1/.ssh/ id_rsa id_rsa.pub known_hosts
Usually there is a ~/.ssh/config file with per-user ssh client configuration.
Use verbose logging with the ssh client to see where the error lies:
[root@rhel2 ~]# ssh -v user1@rhel1 OpenSSH_4.3p2, OpenSSL 0.9.8e-fips-rhel5 01 Jul 2008 debug1: Reading configuration data /etc/ssh/ssh_config debug1: Applying options for * debug1: Connecting to rhel1 [192.168.2.2] port 22. debug1: Connection established. debug1: permanently_set_uid: 0/0 debug1: identity file /root/.ssh/identity type -1 debug1: identity file /root/.ssh/id_rsa type -1 debug1: identity file /root/.ssh/id_dsa type -1 debug1: loaded 3 keys debug1: Remote protocol version 2.0, remote software version OpenSSH_5.3 debug1: match: OpenSSH_5.3 pat OpenSSH* debug1: Enabling compatibility mode for protocol 2.0 debug1: Local version string SSH-2.0-OpenSSH_4.3 debug1: SSH2_MSG_KEXINIT sent debug1: SSH2_MSG_KEXINIT received debug1: kex: server->client aes128-cbc hmac-md5 none debug1: kex: client->server aes128-cbc hmac-md5 none debug1: SSH2_MSG_KEX_DH_GEX_REQUEST(1024<1024<8192) sent debug1: expecting SSH2_MSG_KEX_DH_GEX_GROUP debug1: SSH2_MSG_KEX_DH_GEX_INIT sent debug1: expecting SSH2_MSG_KEX_DH_GEX_REPLY debug1: Host 'rhel1' is known and matches the RSA host key. debug1: Found key in /root/.ssh/known_hosts:1 debug1: ssh_rsa_verify: signature correct debug1: SSH2_MSG_NEWKEYS sent debug1: expecting SSH2_MSG_NEWKEYS debug1: SSH2_MSG_NEWKEYS received debug1: SSH2_MSG_SERVICE_REQUEST sent debug1: SSH2_MSG_SERVICE_ACCEPT received debug1: Authentications that can continue: publickey,gssapi-keyex,gssapi-with-mic,password debug1: Next authentication method: gssapi-with-mic debug1: Unspecified GSS failure. Minor code may provide more information No credentials cache found debug1: Unspecified GSS failure. Minor code may provide more information No credentials cache found debug1: Unspecified GSS failure. Minor code may provide more information No credentials cache found debug1: Next authentication method: publickey debug1: Trying private key: /root/.ssh/identity debug1: Trying private key: /root/.ssh/id_rsa debug1: Trying private key: /root/.ssh/id_dsa debug1: Next authentication method: password user1@rhel1's password: debug1: Authentications that can continue: publickey,gssapi-keyex,gssapi-with-mic,password Permission denied, please try again.
Service doesn’t start with “Cannot Bind to Address” Warning Message
This usually means that either the port is already used by another process, or the IP it’s trying to bind to is not available on the machine. To track down the issue try the following:
Confirm the IP and Port the service is trying to bind to:
[root@rhel1 ~]# grep ^inet_interface /etc/postfix/main.cf inet_interfaces = 192.168.2.2 [root@rhel1 ~]# grep ^smtp /etc/postfix/master.cf smtp inet n - n - - smtpd smtp unix - - n - - smtp
We can see that it will be using the 192.168.2.2 IP address and the port used for smtp. From the /etc/services file:
[root@rhel1 ~]# grep ^smtp /etc/services smtp 25/tcp mail smtp 25/udp mail
So we are binding to port 25.
Check the IP of the machine and make sure it matches:
[root@rhel1 ~]# ip -4 a 1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 16436 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo 3: eth1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000 inet 192.168.2.2/24 brd 192.168.2.255 scope global eth1
Make sure nothing is listening on port 25:
[root@rhel1 ~]# fuser -uv 25/tcp USER PID ACCESS COMMAND 25/tcp: root 2272 F.... (root)master [root@rhel1 ~]# lsof -i tcp:25 COMMAND PID USER FD TYPE DEVICE SIZE/OFF NODE NAME master 2272 root 12u IPv4 14166 0t0 TCP rhel1.local.com:smtp (LISTEN) [root@rhel1 ~]# netstat -antp | grep 25 tcp 0 0 192.168.2.2:25 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN 2272/master
We can see 3 different ways of checking if something is listening on port 25. In the case above, it looks like postfix is using port 25.
Receiving a Destination Host Prohibited
Let’s say you can’t ping a host:
[root@rhel2 ~]# ping google.com PING google.com (18.104.22.168) 56(84) bytes of data. From rhel1.dnsd.me (192.168.2.2) icmp_seq=1 Destination Host Prohibited From rhel1.dnsd.me (192.168.2.2) icmp_seq=2 Destination Host Prohibited From rhel1.dnsd.me (192.168.2.2) icmp_seq=3 Destination Host Prohibited --- google.com ping statistics --- 3 packets transmitted, 0 received, +3 errors, 100% packet loss, time 2001ms
Try the following to make sure your networking is copacetic:
Make sure the physical media is okay:
[root@rhel2 ~]# mii-tool -v eth0: no link product info: vendor 00:50:43, model 2 rev 3 basic mode: autonegotiation enabled basic status: no link capabilities: 100baseTx-FD 100baseTx-HD 10baseT-FD 10baseT-HD advertising: 100baseTx-FD 100baseTx-HD 10baseT-FD 10baseT-HD eth1: negotiated 100baseTx-FD, link ok product info: vendor 00:50:43, model 2 rev 3 basic mode: autonegotiation enabled basic status: autonegotiation complete, link ok capabilities: 100baseTx-FD 100baseTx-HD 10baseT-FD 10baseT-HD advertising: 100baseTx-FD 100baseTx-HD 10baseT-FD 10baseT-HD link partner: 100baseTx-FD 100baseTx-HD 10baseT-FD 10baseT-HD
We can also use ethtool for this:
[root@rhel2 ~]# ethtool eth0 Settings for eth0: Supported ports: [ TP ] Supported link modes: 10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full 100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full 1000baseT/Full Supports auto-negotiation: Yes Advertised link modes: 10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full 100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full 1000baseT/Full Advertised auto-negotiation: Yes Speed: Unknown! Duplex: Unknown! (255) Port: Twisted Pair PHYAD: 0 Transceiver: internal Auto-negotiation: on Supports Wake-on: d Wake-on: d Current message level: 0x00000007 (7) Link detected: no [root@rhel2 ~]# ethtool eth1 Settings for eth1: Supported ports: [ TP ] Supported link modes: 10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full 100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full 1000baseT/Full Supports auto-negotiation: Yes Advertised link modes: 10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full 100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full 1000baseT/Full Advertised auto-negotiation: Yes Speed: 1000Mb/s Duplex: Full Port: Twisted Pair PHYAD: 0 Transceiver: internal Auto-negotiation: on Supports Wake-on: d Wake-on: d Current message level: 0x00000007 (7) Link detected: yes
We can see that eth0 is down and eth1 is up.
Make sure you routing table is okay and you can reach your default Gateway:
[root@rhel2 ~]# netstat -rn Kernel IP routing table Destination Gateway Genmask Flags MSS Window irtt Iface 192.168.2.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 eth1 169.254.0.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 U 0 0 0 eth1 0.0.0.0 192.168.2.2 0.0.0.0 UG 0 0 0 eth1 [root@rhel2 ~]# ip route ls 192.168.2.0/24 dev eth1 proto kernel scope link src 192.168.2.3 169.254.0.0/16 dev eth1 scope link default via 192.168.2.2 dev eth1 [root@rhel2 ~]# route -n Kernel IP routing table Destination Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface 192.168.2.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 eth1 169.254.0.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 U 0 0 0 eth1 0.0.0.0 192.168.2.2 0.0.0.0 UG 0 0 0 eth1
We can see that there are no manual static routes added and the default gateway is 192.168.2.2. Let’s make sure we can reach the default gateway:
[root@rhel2 ~]# ping -c 2 192.168.2.2 PING 192.168.2.2 (192.168.2.2) 56(84) bytes of data. 64 bytes from 192.168.2.2: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.186 ms 64 bytes from 192.168.2.2: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.334 ms --- 192.168.2.2 ping statistics --- 2 packets transmitted, 2 received, 0% packet loss, time 999ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.186/0.260/0.334/0.074 ms
If we had static routes, for example let’s say we had a route that said we need to use eth0 to reach a certain IP:
[root@rhel2 ~]# ip route ls 22.214.171.124 dev eth0 scope link 192.168.2.0/24 dev eth1 proto kernel scope link src 192.168.2.3 169.254.0.0/16 dev eth1 scope link 126.96.36.199/16 dev eth0 proto kernel scope link src 188.8.131.52 default via 192.168.2.2 dev eth1
The top line is setting a static route to go out of eth0 if reaching 184.108.40.206. You can also use ip route get to find out which interface will be used to reach a certain IP:
[root@rhel2 ~]# ip route get 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 dev eth0 src 22.214.171.124 cache expires 21334364sec mtu 1500 advmss 1460 hoplimit 64
We can see that to reach IP 126.96.36.199 we will use eth0 as the source interface. My ping was of course failing:
[root@rhel2 ~]# ping 188.8.131.52 -c 3 PING 184.108.40.206 (220.127.116.11) 56(84) bytes of data. From 18.104.22.168 icmp_seq=1 Destination Host Unreachable From 22.214.171.124 icmp_seq=2 Destination Host Unreachable From 126.96.36.199 icmp_seq=3 Destination Host Unreachable --- 188.8.131.52 ping statistics --- 3 packets transmitted, 0 received, +3 errors, 100% packet loss, time 2001ms, pipe 3
Make sure you don’t have any error on the NIC:
[root@rhel2 ~]# ifconfig eth1 eth1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:29:4F:A1:EF inet addr:192.168.2.3 Bcast:192.168.2.255 Mask:255.255.255.0 inet6 addr: fe80::20c:29ff:fe4f:a1ef/64 Scope:Link UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:34233 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:46943 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 RX bytes:3974689 (3.7 MiB) TX bytes:6006739 (5.7 MiB) [root@rhel2 ~]# ip -s link show eth1 3: eth1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast qlen 1000 link/ether 00:0c:29:4f:a1:ef brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff RX: bytes packets errors dropped overrun mcast 3976135 34252 0 0 0 0 TX: bytes packets errors dropped carrier collsns 6008929 46958 0 0 0 0
From above we can see there are no drops or errors, ethtool can show more statistics:
[root@rhel2 ~]# ethtool -S eth1 NIC statistics: rx_packets: 35469 tx_packets: 47999 rx_bytes: 4223053 tx_bytes: 6297615 rx_broadcast: 0 tx_broadcast: 0 rx_multicast: 0 tx_multicast: 0 rx_errors: 0 tx_errors: 0 tx_dropped: 0 multicast: 0 collisions: 0 rx_length_errors: 0 rx_over_errors: 0 rx_crc_errors: 0 rx_frame_errors: 0 rx_no_buffer_count: 0 rx_missed_errors: 0 tx_aborted_errors: 0 tx_carrier_errors: 0 tx_fifo_errors: 0 tx_heartbeat_errors: 0 tx_window_errors: 0 tx_abort_late_coll: 0 tx_deferred_ok: 0 tx_single_coll_ok: 0 tx_multi_coll_ok: 0 tx_timeout_count: 0 tx_restart_queue: 0 rx_long_length_errors: 0 rx_short_length_errors: 0 rx_align_errors: 0 tx_tcp_seg_good: 3 tx_tcp_seg_failed: 0 rx_flow_control_xon: 0 rx_flow_control_xoff: 0 tx_flow_control_xon: 0 tx_flow_control_xoff: 0 rx_long_byte_count: 4223053 rx_csum_offload_good: 26620 rx_csum_offload_errors: 0 rx_header_split: 0 alloc_rx_buff_failed: 0 tx_smbus: 0 rx_smbus: 0 dropped_smbus: 0
We can also check TCP and UDP statistics with netstat:
[root@rhel2 ~]# netstat -st IcmpMsg: InType0: 439 InType3: 65 OutType3: 52 OutType8: 1986 Tcp: 396 active connections openings 54 passive connection openings 324 failed connection attempts 3 connection resets received 1 connections established 18824 segments received 13868 segments send out 9 segments retransmited 0 bad segments received. 321 resets sent TcpExt: 53 TCP sockets finished time wait in fast timer 116 delayed acks sent 118 packets directly queued to recvmsg prequeue. 5049 packets directly received from prequeue 770 packets header predicted 24 packets header predicted and directly queued to user 616 acknowledgments not containing data received 10674 predicted acknowledgments 1 congestion windows recovered after partial ack 0 TCP data loss events 3 other TCP timeouts 1 DSACKs received 2 connections reset due to early user close IpExt: InMcastPkts: 40 OutMcastPkts: 48
Usually the best way to use the above results is to run it once, then try your connection and then run it again to see if your resets, timeouts, or loss events are increasing.
Make sure you external routing is okay
Let’s make sure you can reach the server traversing all the routers:
[root@rhel2 ~]# traceroute -n google.com traceroute to google.com (184.108.40.206), 30 hops max, 40 byte packets 1 192.168.2.2 0.201 ms 0.142 ms 0.110 ms 2 10.0.0.1 0.556 ms 0.650 ms 0.667 ms 3 220.127.116.11 26.219 ms 26.329 ms 29.218 ms 4 18.104.22.168 12.217 ms 19.078 ms 19.189 ms 5 22.214.171.124 21.125 ms 21.099 ms 21.007 ms 6 126.96.36.199 21.283 ms 188.8.131.52 20.592 ms 184.108.40.206 21.097 ms 7 220.127.116.11 20.852 ms 18.104.22.168 22.510 ms 22.214.171.124 20.845 ms 8 126.96.36.199 20.976 ms 19.288 ms 13.930 ms 9 188.8.131.52 14.053 ms 17.440 ms 17.130 ms 10 184.108.40.206 17.112 ms 220.127.116.11 16.811 ms 16.845 ms 11 18.104.22.168 17.320 ms 22.214.171.124 21.086 ms 22.138 ms 12 126.96.36.199 51.552 ms 49.946 ms 48.613 ms 13 188.8.131.52 47.352 ms 43.530 ms 184.108.40.206 50.222 ms 14 220.127.116.11 45.630 ms 45.758 ms 45.889 ms 15 18.104.22.168 45.691 ms 45.525 ms 45.193 ms
If along the way anything is timing out, then there might an external routing issue. Here is me getting blocked locally:
[root@rhel2 ~]# traceroute -n google.com traceroute to google.com (22.214.171.124), 30 hops max, 40 byte packets 1 192.168.2.2 0.141 ms 0.138 ms 0.149 ms 2 192.168.2.2 0.096 ms !X 0.150 ms !X 0.145 ms !X
Confirm DNS is working
[root@rhel2 ~]# nslookup google.com | head -6 Server: 192.168.2.2 Address: 192.168.2.2#53 Non-authoritative answer: Name: google.com Address: 126.96.36.199
Lastly ensure you can see your destination IP:
[root@rhel2 ~]# ping -n -c 3 google.com PING google.com (188.8.131.52) 56(84) bytes of data. 64 bytes from 184.108.40.206: icmp_seq=1 ttl=52 time=42.3 ms 64 bytes from 220.127.116.11: icmp_seq=2 ttl=52 time=42.5 ms 64 bytes from 18.104.22.168: icmp_seq=3 ttl=52 time=45.1 ms --- google.com ping statistics --- 3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2003ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 42.353/43.353/45.109/1.268 ms
There are many more things to try if you are trying a specific application. You can try to get a packet capture with tcpdump (covered in Chapter 5) and check to see what is happening at layer 7 of the OSI stack.