Recently I migrated the MySQL instance to MariaDB and everything was working as expected. I was moving some resources around and I decided to free up my Debian machine. So I decided to move the mariadb instance to my FreeBSD machine.

Install MariaDB on FreeBSD

The Debian version of mariadb was the following (10.0.23):

┌─[elatov@kerch] - [/home/elatov] - [2016-04-17 03:50:50]
└─[0] <> dpkg -l | grep mariadb-server-10.0
ii  mariadb-server-10.0                   10.0.23-0+deb8u1                     amd64        MariaDB database server binaries

Luckily FreeBSD had that version as well (10.0.23):

┌─[elatov@moxz] - [/home/elatov] - [2016-04-17 03:51:49]
└─[0] <> pkg search mariadb | grep server
mariadb100-server-10.0.23      Multithreaded SQL database (server)
mariadb101-server-10.1.13      Multithreaded SQL database (server)
mariadb55-server-5.5.47        Multithreaded SQL database (server)

It looks like it has a later version as well (maybe I will update later), but for now I will install the same version of mariadb so the migration has less changes/risks. To install I just ran the following:

sudo pkg install mariadb100-server

Then I added the following to the /etc/rc.conf file:

┌─[elatov@moxz] - [/home/elatov] - [2016-04-17 03:47:20]
└─[0] <> grep mysql /etc/rc.conf
mysql_enable="YES"
mysql_optfile=/usr/local/my.cnf
mysql_pidfile=/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid

To make sure the mysql user can create/write the pid file, I created the directory under /var/run and made sure the mysql user owns it:

┌─[elatov@moxz] - [/home/elatov] - [2016-04-17 03:55:14]
└─[0] <> ls -ld /var/run/mysqld
drwxr-xr-x  2 mysql  wheel  512 Apr 17 15:27 /var/run/mysqld

I had some options on the Debian machine that I decided to move over. The /usr/local/my.cnf file was pretty empty so at the bottom I added an include statement to point to where all the configs were. Here is how the file looked like:

┌─[elatov@moxz] - [/home/elatov] - [2016-04-17 03:56:11]
└─[0] <> grep -vE '^$|^#' /usr/local/my.cnf
[mysqld]
sql_mode=NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION,STRICT_TRANS_TABLES
!includedir /usr/local/etc/mysql/conf.d/

Then I copied most of the settings over from the Debian machine and broke them down by file:

┌─[elatov@moxz] - [/home/elatov] - [2016-04-17 03:59:27]
└─[0] <> ls /usr/local/etc/mysql/conf.d
client.cnf            mysqld_log.cnf
mysql_innodb_data.cnf mysqld_safe.cnf
mysqld.cnf            mysqldump.cnf

Here is the main config that I just copied from Debian (don’t forget to open port 3306 if you are running a firewall):

┌─[elatov@moxz] - [/home/elatov] - [2016-04-17 04:02:30]
└─[0] <> grep -vE '^$|^#' /usr/local/etc/mysql/conf.d/mysqld.cnf
[mysqld]
user        = mysql
pid-file    = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid
socket      = /tmp/mysql.sock
port        = 3306
basedir     = /usr/local
datadir     = /var/db/mysql
tmpdir      = /tmp
skip-external-locking
bind-address        = 0.0.0.0
key_buffer_size     = 16M
max_allowed_packet  = 16M
thread_stack        = 192K
thread_cache_size       = 8
query_cache_limit   = 1M
query_cache_size        = 16M

The log config put all of the log files under /var/log/mysql, so I created the directory just like the /var/run one:

┌─[elatov@moxz] - [/home/elatov] - [2016-04-17 04:00:10]
└─[0] <> ls -ld /var/log/mysql
drwxr-xr-x  2 mysql  wheel  512 Apr 17 12:30 /var/log/mysql

Then I created a newsyslogd config as well just to make sure they don’t take that much space over time:

┌─[elatov@moxz] - [/home/elatov] - [2016-04-17 04:01:12]
└─[0] <> cat /etc/newsyslog.conf.d/mysql
/var/log/mysql/mysql-slow.log mysql:mysql 644 3 100 * JC  /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid
/var/log/mysql/mysql.log mysql:mysql 644 3 100 * JC  /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid
/var/log/mysql/mysql_error.log mysql:mysql 644 3 100 * JC  /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid

At this point I started mariadb and it was okay:

┌─[elatov@moxz] - [/home/elatov] - [2016-04-17 12:05:27]
└─[0] <> sudo service mysql-server start
Starting mysql.
┌─[elatov@moxz] - [/home/elatov] - [2016-04-17 12:05:46]
└─[0] <> sudo service mysql-server status
mysql is running as pid 96398.

Here are all the parameters that ended up getting set for mariadb:

┌─[elatov@moxz] - [/home/elatov] - [2016-04-17 04:03:02]
└─[0] <> ps -auwwx | grep mysql
mysql     8103   0.0  0.1   17100   2196  -  Is    3:27PM    0:00.01 /bin/sh /usr/local/bin/mysqld_safe --defaults-extra-file=/usr/local/my.cnf --user=mysql --datadir=/var/db/mysql --pid-file=/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid
mysql     8353   0.0 12.8 2603132 264344  -  I     3:27PM    0:06.28 /usr/local/libexec/mysqld --defaults-extra-file=/usr/local/my.cnf --basedir=/usr/local --datadir=/var/db/mysql --plugin-dir=/usr/local/lib/mysql/plugin --log-error=/var/log/mysql/mysql_error.log --open-files-limit=15000 --pid-file=/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid --socket=/tmp/mysql.sock --port=3306

And here is what I saw the logs:

┌─[elatov@moxz] - [/home/elatov] - [2016-04-17 12:40:33]
└─[1] <> tail -f /var/log/mysql/mysql_error.log
160417 12:30:31 mysqld_safe Starting mysqld daemon with databases from /var/db/mysql
160417 12:30:31 [Note] /usr/local/libexec/mysqld (mysqld 10.0.23-MariaDB-log) starting as process 98767 ...
160417 12:30:31 [Note] InnoDB: Using mutexes to ref count buffer pool pages
160417 12:30:31 [Note] InnoDB: The InnoDB memory heap is disabled
160417 12:30:31 [Note] InnoDB: Mutexes and rw_locks use GCC atomic builtins
160417 12:30:31 [Note] InnoDB: Memory barrier is not used
160417 12:30:31 [Note] InnoDB: Compressed tables use zlib 1.2.8
160417 12:30:31 [Note] InnoDB: Using CPU crc32 instructions
160417 12:30:31 [Note] InnoDB: Initializing buffer pool, size = 2.0G
160417 12:30:31 [Note] InnoDB: Completed initialization of buffer pool
160417 12:30:31 [Note] InnoDB: Highest supported file format is Barracuda.
160417 12:30:32 [Note] InnoDB: 128 rollback segment(s) are active.
160417 12:30:32 [Note] InnoDB: Waiting for purge to start
160417 12:30:32 [Note] InnoDB:  Percona XtraDB (http://www.percona.com) 5.6.26-76.0 started; log sequence number 1026386743
160417 12:30:32 [Note] Server socket created on IP: '0.0.0.0'.
160417 12:30:32 [Note] /usr/local/libexec/mysqld: ready for connections.
Version: '10.0.23-MariaDB-log'  socket: '/tmp/mysql.sock'  port: 3306  FreeBSD Ports

Quick Performance Comparison

I installed sysbench on the Debian machine (sudo apt-get install sysbench) and first I created a test database in mariadb:

MariaDB [(none)]> create database ptest;

Next I prepared the data:

$ sysbench --test=oltp --oltp-table-size=1000000 --mysql-db=ptest --mysql-user=USER --mysql-password=PASSWORD prepare

And now for the run:

$ sysbench --test=oltp --oltp-table-size=1000000 --oltp-test-mode=complex --oltp-read-only=off --num-threads=6 --max-time=60 --max-requests=0 --mysql-db=ptest --mysql-user=USER --mysql-password=PASSWORD run

And here is what I saw:

sysbench 0.4.12:  multi-threaded system evaluation benchmark

No DB drivers specified, using mysql
Running the test with following options:
Number of threads: 6

Doing OLTP test.
Running mixed OLTP test
Using Special distribution (12 iterations,  1 pct of values are returned in 75 pct cases)
Using "BEGIN" for starting transactions
Using auto_inc on the id column
Threads started!
Time limit exceeded, exiting...
(last message repeated 5 times)
Done.

OLTP test statistics:
    queries performed:
        read:                            375340
        write:                           134050
        other:                           53620
        total:                           563010
    transactions:                        26810  (446.80 per sec.)
    deadlocks:                           0      (0.00 per sec.)
    read/write requests:                 509390 (8489.18 per sec.)
    other operations:                    53620  (893.60 per sec.)

Test execution summary:
    total time:                          60.0046s
    total number of events:              26810
    total time taken by event execution: 359.8723
    per-request statistics:
         min:                                  2.25ms
         avg:                                 13.42ms
         max:                                 40.72ms
         approx.  95 percentile:              22.89ms

Threads fairness:
    events (avg/stddev):           4468.3333/6.50
    execution time (avg/stddev):   59.9787/0.00

Then if want you can clean up the data:

$ sysbench --test=oltp --mysql-db=ptest --mysql-user=USER --mysql-password=PASSWD cleanup

When I tried installing sysbench on FreeBSD it depended on mysql56 package which would remove the mariadb package:

┌─[elatov@moxz] - [/home/elatov] - [2016-04-17 04:15:36]
└─[0] <> sudo pkg install sysbench
Updating FreeBSD repository catalogue...
FreeBSD repository is up-to-date.
All repositories are up-to-date.

Checking integrity... done (1 conflicting)
Checking integrity... done (0 conflicting)
The following 4 package(s) will be affected (of 0 checked):

Installed packages to be REMOVED:
	mariadb100-client-10.0.23
	mariadb100-server-10.0.23

New packages to be INSTALLED:
	sysbench: 0.4.12_3
	mysql56-client: 5.6.27

The operation will free 150 MiB.

Proceed with this action? [y/N]:

So I just downloaded the package:

sudo pkg install --fetch-only sysbench

And then the package is stored under /var/cache/pkg:

┌─[elatov@moxz] - [/home/elatov] - [2016-04-17 04:15:18]
└─[0] <> ls -l /var/cache/pkg/sysbench-0.4.12_3*
-rw-r--r--  1 root  wheel  51340 Mar 29 09:27 /var/cache/pkg/sysbench-0.4.12_3-563437926d.txz
lrwxr-xr-x  1 root  wheel     32 Apr 16 20:40 /var/cache/pkg/sysbench-0.4.12_3.txz -> sysbench-0.4.12_3-563437926d.txz

At that point you can just extract it using tar. After that sysbench worked without issues:

┌─[elatov@moxz] - [/home/elatov] - [2016-04-17 04:06:46]
└─[0] <> which sysbench
/usr/local/bin/sysbench
┌─[elatov@moxz] - [/home/elatov] - [2016-04-17 04:17:35]
└─[0] <> sysbench --version
sysbench 0.4.12

Running the same sysbench commands as above I saw the following results:

sysbench 0.4.12:  multi-threaded system evaluation benchmark

No DB drivers specified, using mysql
Running the test with following options:
Number of threads: 6

Doing OLTP test.
Running mixed OLTP test
Using Special distribution (12 iterations,  1 pct of values are returned in 75 pct cases)
Using "BEGIN" for starting transactions
Using auto_inc on the id column
Threads started!
Time limit exceeded, exiting...
(last message repeated 5 times)
Done.

OLTP test statistics:
    queries performed:
        read:                            355194
        write:                           126855
        other:                           50742
        total:                           532791
    transactions:                        25371  (422.76 per sec.)
    deadlocks:                           0      (0.00 per sec.)
    read/write requests:                 482049 (8032.49 per sec.)
    other operations:                    50742  (845.52 per sec.)

Test execution summary:
    total time:                          60.0124s
    total number of events:              25371
    total time taken by event execution: 359.8753
    per-request statistics:
         min:                                  3.24ms
         avg:                                 14.18ms
         max:                                267.57ms
         approx.  95 percentile:              24.26ms

Threads fairness:
    events (avg/stddev):           4228.5000/35.88
    execution time (avg/stddev):   59.9792/0.00

Debian performed a little better and I was okay with that, I didn’t need crazy query performance in my home lab. I just wanted to make sure the difference wasn’t huge.

Migrate all the DBs and other stuff

I ran into this page which talked about the following command grabbing most of everything:

mysqldump --events --routines --triggers --all-databases -u root -p > dbs-routines.sql

After that I copied the sql file over to the FreeBSD machine:

rsync -avzP dbs-routines.sql moxz:

Then I imported all the information:

mysql -u root -p < dbs-routines.sql

After that the databases were all there:

┌─[elatov@moxz] - [/home/elatov] - [2016-04-17 04:17:38]
└─[0] <> mysql -u root -p
Enter password:
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MariaDB connection id is 109
Server version: 10.0.23-MariaDB-log FreeBSD Ports

Copyright (c) 2000, 2015, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

MariaDB [(none)]> show databases;
+--------------------+
| Database           |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
| snorby             |
| wordpress          |
| zabbix             |
+--------------------+
9 rows in set (0.00 sec)

I also double checked and all the stored procedures were moved over as well:

MariaDB [(none)]> SHOW PROCEDURE STATUS;
+--------+---------------------------+-----------+----------------+---------------------+---------------------+---------------+---------+----------------------+----------------------+--------------------+
| Db     | Name                      | Type      | Definer        | Modified            | Created             | Security_type | Comment | character_set_client | collation_connection | Database Collation |
+--------+---------------------------+-----------+----------------+---------------------+---------------------+---------------+---------+----------------------+----------------------+--------------------+
| zabbix | partition_create          | PROCEDURE | root@localhost | 2016-04-17 11:50:09 | 2016-04-17 11:50:09 | DEFINER       |         | utf8                 | utf8_general_ci      | utf8_general_ci    |
| zabbix | partition_drop            | PROCEDURE | root@localhost | 2016-04-17 11:50:09 | 2016-04-17 11:50:09 | DEFINER       |         | utf8                 | utf8_general_ci      | utf8_general_ci    |
| zabbix | partition_maintenance     | PROCEDURE | root@localhost | 2016-04-17 11:50:09 | 2016-04-17 11:50:09 | DEFINER       |         | utf8                 | utf8_general_ci      | utf8_general_ci    |
| zabbix | partition_maintenance_all | PROCEDURE | root@localhost | 2016-04-17 11:50:09 | 2016-04-17 11:50:09 | DEFINER       |         | utf8                 | utf8_general_ci      | utf8_general_ci    |
| zabbix | partition_verify          | PROCEDURE | root@localhost | 2016-04-17 11:50:09 | 2016-04-17 11:50:09 | DEFINER       |         | utf8                 | utf8_general_ci      | utf8_general_ci    |
+--------+---------------------------+-----------+----------------+---------------------+---------------------+---------------+---------+----------------------+----------------------+--------------------+
5 rows in set (0.01 sec)

I was pretty happy with that.

Migrate Users and Privileges

I then ran into this page and it talked about moving the users over. So then I dumped the user table:

mysqldump -u root -p mysql user > user_table_dump.sql

Then copied it over:

rsync -avzP user_table_dump.sql moxz:

Then on the other side I imported the table:

mysql -u root -p mysql < user_table_dump.sql

After flushing privileges, I saw my users and the grants as well:

MariaDB [mysql]> select Host, user from user ;
+-----------+------------------+
| Host      | user             |
+-----------+------------------+
| localhost | debian-sys-maint |
| localhost | root             |
| localhost | snorby           |
| localhost | wordpress        |
| localhost | zabbix           |
+-----------+------------------+
6 rows in set (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [mysql]> show grants for 'zabbix'@'localhost';
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Grants for zabbix@localhost                                                                                   	|
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO 'zabbix'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD 'kjk' |
| GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON `zabbix`.* TO 'zabbix'@'localhost'                                                    	|
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

Finishing up

I then modified zabbix, wordpress, and snorby to point to the remote database. I also added new Grants to allow remote access for the dedicated users. And lastly I ended up opening the remote port:

┌─[elatov@moxz] - [/home/elatov] - [2016-04-17 04:35:11]
└─[0] <> sudo pfctl -s rules | grep mysql
pass in on em0 inet proto tcp from 10.0.0.0/24 to any port = mysql flags S/SA keep state

After all of that it worked out pretty well.


Published by Karim Elatov

16 September 2016

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